The influence of the environment on child development
In social pedagogy society, the social environment is seen primarily from the point of view of the process of inclusion of the child in her and integration through the nearest social environment in society as a whole.
From this point of view becomes important that the relationship of human and external social conditions of his life in the society are of the nature of the interaction. Wednesday – it’s not just the streets, houses and things, the location of which is sufficient to know the person to logging in, to feel comfortable there. Wednesday is also the most diverse community of people who are characterized by a specific system of relations and rules, applicable to all members of the community. Therefore, on the one hand, people make something of themselves, to a certain extent, affect her, cheating on her, but at the same time, and the environment affects the person, makes him their demands. It may take a person some of his actions, manifestations, and can reject; to treat him kindly, and perhaps hostile.
The relation of environment to man is determined by how its behavior conforms to the expectations of the environment. The behavior of a person is largely determined by what position he occupies in society.
Person can occupy in society multiple positions. So, a woman can be a teacher, a wife, a mother. Each position imposes certain requirements and at the same time gives him some rights. This position of man in society, characterized by certain rights and responsibilities in sociology called social status.
Some statuses we are given from birth. So, the status of a person may be due to gender, nationality, place of birth, surname and other factors. These statuses are usually called congenital, or prescribed. Others are determined by what people have achieved in society independently, through their own efforts. For example, the social status of the teacher given to someone who was trained in the appropriate professional school and got a degree in this specialty. In this case we speak about the status achieved or acquired.
The status determines the behavior of man in society in the sense that in certain situations the person does not behave just as she wants to, and in accordance with their status, by analogy with the behavior in similar situations by other people. It is also important that the people around them expect of a person in these situations a particular behavior. That is, how can a person be forced to play a role. So this is expected behavior due to the status of a person is called social role.
The absorption of a variety of social roles is an important part of the process of socialization. However, the difficulty lies in the fact that in society there are statuses not only welcome them, but also those that are contrary to societal norms and values. Therefore, in the process of formation and development of the child can develop positive social roles, and negative.
Positive roles include first of all the role of a family member. In the family the child learns several roles: son or daughter, brother or sister, nephew, grandson, and learns about the roles of father and mother, grandparents, etc.
This important role does the child in the process of its development, is a member of the team. In kindergarten and school, in sports clubs and children’s organizations, in dealing with peers, the child learns the role of a member of the collective, comrade, friend, student, leader, and many others.
Each person acts as a consumer, as he has throughout his life constantly needs what he needs for life: food, clothing, shoes, books and much, much more. Understanding of this role, the ability to judiciously use services offered to the individual, the community, the child must master in early childhood.
Important social role is to be a citizen of the Fatherland, love of the Motherland, be proud of it, to be a patriot of his homeland. There may be other social roles that develops a child, for example, the role of the specialist, which can obtain a pupil in school, the Lyceum, the gymnasium, or in educational institutions of primary professional education. There are other positive social roles that a child learns in the process of growing up.
Negative roles include hobo, often homeless and street children. On the streets, especially in large industrial cities, in shops, in markets, in transport we see child beggars who have become accustomed to this role and often quite skillfully beg for money from passers-by. Among them there are those who are engaged in theft, sometimes they are pushing adults, sometimes these children foraged yourself. These could include some other social role of a negative character.
The child development mechanism role behavior gives him successful involvement in social relations, because it gives him the opportunity to adapt, to adapt to each new situation or position on the rest of their lives. This process of adaptation of the individual to the social environment is called social adaptation.
Social adaptation is a precondition and a result of successful socialization of the child, which is known to occur in three main areas: activity, communication, and consciousness. In the field of activity of the child is the extension of activities orientation in each view, the understanding and mastering, the mastering of appropriate forms and means of activity. In the field of communication is the expansion of the circle, filling and deepening of content, the assimilation of norms and rules of behavior accepted in society, the mastery of different forms that are acceptable in the social environment of the child and society as a whole. In the field of consciousness – formation of the image of self as an active subject of activity, the understanding of his social identity and social roles, building self-esteem.
In the process of socialization, and in particular social adaptation of the child, manifested by objective human need to be “all”. However, in parallel to the process of individual development of the personality of the child gradually formed another objective need – to Express themselves, their individuality. The child begins to look for ways and means for its expression, to show them, resulting in his individualization, which is reflected in the fact that certain socially significant qualities and personality traits are manifested in an individual, it is inherent in this form that his social behavior for all General external similarity to the behavior of others acquires the features of uniqueness, uniqueness.
Social development of the child, therefore, occurs in two related areas: socialization (the acquisition of socio-cultural experience, his assignment) and individualization (the acquisition of independence and relative autonomy).
If the entry of a child into society establishes the equilibrium between the processes of socialization and individualization, when, on the one hand, he learns the norms and rules of behaviour accepted in this society, and contributes a significant “contribution” to him, your personality, there is integration of the child into society. Thus there is a mutual transformation and the person and the environment.