Advertising affects children, and children influence the market
American marketers appreciate the “use value” child $100 thousand – that’s the number one American should spend on purchases throughout her life . E ugodno the average American child sees 40 thousand television commercials.
In the early 1990-ies, when the U.S. was spent annually on advertising aimed at children, not more than $100 million American parents and teachers worried that there is a growing generation that will take the most important amount of money and property.
In 2000-ies in America on advertising for children is spent annually to $12 billion.
Allen KannerAllen Kanner, a psychologist from Wright research Institute, believes that among children growing consumer sentiment. “Children become greedy consumers”, – says the psychologist. ” When I ask them, what are you going to do when I grow up, they respond that will make the money. When they discuss their friends, they talk about their clothes, the brands of clothes they wear, and not on their human qualities.”
Age requirement for advertising, is constantly decreasing. Now two-year-old child is a full-fledged subject of the impact of television and other forms of advertising. And such advertising does not go unnoticed. In accordance with the recent researches of Dr. Kenner, three American child, on average, knows 100 different brands. Annually, an American teenager spends on fancy clothes and shoes $1.4 thousand.
Strategy companies clearly due to the psychology of children. Professor of marketing Texas A&M University James McNeillJames U. McNeal believes that the child’s interest for the market and producers of advertising from three considerations: first, it has its own money and spend it, often obeying advertising; secondly, it affects parents ‘ decisions about what to buy; and thirdly, by the time when the child grows up, his consumer needs and habits are already formed, through advertising, which he saw in his childhood.
In the 1960s, parents of children aged 2 to 14 years annually spent a total of $5 billion under the influence of their children. In the 1970s, the figure was $20 billion in 1984 it rose to $50 billion in 1990 to us $132 billion James McNeill provides the following data: every year pupils of primary school (children aged from 6 years to 12 years) have at their disposal approximately $15 billion of its own money, $11 billion of which they spend on toys, clothes, sweets and Breakfast. Additionally, parents are spending about $160 billion per year under the influence of the preferences of their children. After just a few years has seen a tremendous increase in these expenses. In 1997, children under 12 years of age spent more than $24 billion of their own money, while under their direct influence family additionally spent $188 billion On research data services Charles Schwab & Co. in 2002, the amount of personal money children and adolescents spent on purchases reached $170 billion of the Average American teen now spends $92 a week. According to a study conducted by the American Council of Education in the Field of SavingsAmerican Savings Education Council, 59% of all money kids and Teens receive as gifts from parents.
Children are the perfect target for the commercials, because they spend a lot of time in front of TV screens. The study of 7-12 year old residents of France and Switzerland showed that on average they watch TV 2.5 hours daily. American children went in this respect, far ahead, a young American sits in front of the TV for 4-5 hours a day. Television advertising aimed at children under 12 is banned in Norway and Sweden, Greece prohibited the advertising of children’s toys between 7 a.m. and 10 p.m. One third of the countries of the European Union adopted laws restricting advertising aimed at children. Swedish legislation regarding children’s advertising is the most hard. In 1991 in Sweden was prohibited the advertising in the children’s Prime time – a time when the television is going the maximum child audience.
In 1999, the group, which included 60 psychologists, appealed to the American Psychological Association / American Psychological Association an open letter in which has demanded from the Association to Express their opinion about the advertising aimed at children, which according to the authors of the letter unethical and dangerous. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct studies of psychological techniques used in commercial children’s advertising, to publish the results of these studies and to give an ethical evaluation of these technologies, to develop strategies that would protect children from commercial manipulation.
Later, similar studies were conducted. One of the findings of the Association: television advertising teaches children unhealthy habits. Studies have shown that a child under the age of 8 years are not able to critically perceive such advertising and tends to treat her with complete trust. According to the findings of the American Academy of PediatricsAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, children are not able to distinguish where the transmission ends and the commercials begin.
If we consider that among the most advertised products – candy, charaterise cereals, sugary drinks and all kinds of snacks, advertising, thus forms the wrong idea about healthy balanced diet. The American Psychological Association recommended prohibiting all forms of advertising focused on children under 8 years of age. However, no serious measures to limit children’s advertising was not followed. Defenders of children’s advertising refer to the rights of children as consumers. Officials on freedom of expression and enterprise.